THEME BY PISTACHI-O

kitesh:

Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 – 16 April 1958) was a British biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer who made critical contributions to the understanding of the fine molecular structures of DNARNAvirusescoal, and graphiteFranklin is best known for her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA which led to discovery of DNA double helix.

Her data, according to Francis Crick, was “the data we actually used” to formulate Crick and Watson’s 1953 hypothesis regarding the structure of DNA. Franklin’s images of X-ray diffraction confirming the helical structure of DNA were shown to Watson without her approval or knowledge. Though this image and her accurate interpretation of the data provided valuable insight into the DNA structure, Franklin’s scientific contributions to the discovery of the double helix are often overlooked. Unpublished drafts of her papers (written just as she was arranging to leave King’s College London) show that she had independently determined the overall B-form of the DNA helix and the location of the phosphate groups on the outside of the structure. Moreover, Franklin personally told Crick and Watson that the backbones had to be on the outside, which was crucial since before this both they and Linus Pauling had independently generated non-illuminating models with the chains inside and the bases pointing outwards. However, her work was published third, in the series of three DNANature articles, led by the paper of Watson and Crick which only hinted at her contribution to their hypothesis.

rhamphotheca:

A diagram showing the structure of DNA, with detail showing the structure of the four bases:adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, and the location of the major and minor groove. Along with RNA and proteins, DNA is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA molecules are double-stranded helices, consisting of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, molecules with backbones made of alternating sugars (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups, with the bases attached to the sugars.
(image: Richard Wheeler)                                        (via: Wikipedia)

rhamphotheca:

A diagram showing the structure of DNA, with detail showing the structure of the four bases:adeninecytosineguanine and thymine, and the location of the major and minor groove. Along with RNA and proteins, DNA is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA molecules are double-stranded helices, consisting of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, molecules with backbones made of alternating sugars (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups, with the bases attached to the sugars.

(image: Richard Wheeler)                                        (via: Wikipedia)

watchingcbeams:

Rosalind Franklin
Watson and Crick used her x-ray photographs to develop the double helix model of DNA.

watchingcbeams:

Rosalind Franklin

Watson and Crick used her x-ray photographs to develop the double helix model of DNA.

littlemicrobiologyblog:

On the left is Rosalind Franklin, whose stunning X-Ray crystallography images of DNA (one of which, down the centre of a double helix, is shown on the right) aided Crick and Watson in their discovery of DNA structure. 

littlemicrobiologyblog:

On the left is Rosalind Franklin, whose stunning X-Ray crystallography images of DNA (one of which, down the centre of a double helix, is shown on the right) aided Crick and Watson in their discovery of DNA structure. 

conduittothecosmos:

Colourful Heavy Metal Ion Test

When testing for heavy metals in solutions these days, the process usually involves expensive equipment which requires skilled technicians. But now a new technique developed by scientists in China using simple colour changes may have revolutionised the process.
Using singled stranded DNA or RNA molecules - aptamers, which can reversibly bind with mercury and lead, several sensors have been developed. For example, one reaction in default was red, but upon contact and binding with a metal ion; the hydrogel shrinks, altering the colloidal crystals causing them to change colour.
This is amazing because the process is simple and requires no more than your eyes. In the future this technology is expected to be adapted for use in analysis of drugs, good, additives, and pesticides.
(x)

conduittothecosmos:

Colourful Heavy Metal Ion Test

When testing for heavy metals in solutions these days, the process usually involves expensive equipment which requires skilled technicians. But now a new technique developed by scientists in China using simple colour changes may have revolutionised the process.

Using singled stranded DNA or RNA molecules - aptamers, which can reversibly bind with mercury and lead, several sensors have been developed. For example, one reaction in default was red, but upon contact and binding with a metal ion; the hydrogel shrinks, altering the colloidal crystals causing them to change colour.

This is amazing because the process is simple and requires no more than your eyes. In the future this technology is expected to be adapted for use in analysis of drugs, good, additives, and pesticides.

(x)

tenyouusness:

Rosalind Franklin in a 1940 letter to her religious father: I maintain that faith in this world is perfectly possible without faith in another world…
(via Letters of Note)

tenyouusness:

Rosalind Franklin in a 1940 letter to her religious father: I maintain that faith in this world is perfectly possible without faith in another world…

(via Letters of Note)

Rosalind Franklin 

ilovedna:

Rosalind Franklin was a biologist and chemist, famous for her role in discovering the structure of DNA. 

She learnt about x-ray diffraction techniques in Paris and then in 1951 joined King’s College, London. There she led a research project, aimed at discovering the structure of DNA.

Franklin used pioneering crystallographic X-ray photography to capture images of the double helical structure of DNA. These images helped James Watson to complete and publish his model of DNA.

After her work at Kings she went on to study the tobacco mosaic virus and polio. 

Sadly she died of cancer in 1956 and some believe the cause of her cancer could have been linked to her exposure to radiation whilst using the x-ray techniques that contributed so greatly to Watson’s discovery.

Read: How to Remove a Brain, David Haviland.

heapofhistory:

Rosalind Franklin, the scientist who worked with Maurice Wilkins in 1952 to take the first ever pictures of DNA’s double helix structure. Watson and Crick used these pictures and Franklin’s research to make the famous DNA model.

heapofhistory:

Rosalind Franklin, the scientist who worked with Maurice Wilkins in 1952 to take the first ever pictures of DNA’s double helix structure. Watson and Crick used these pictures and Franklin’s research to make the famous DNA model.

olena:

Art by { dvdp }
THE PHYSICS OF SPIRALS?

Perhaps someone with more experience in math & physics can give some insight about this:
I’ve subscribed to a weekly newsletter from { Kurzweil AI } (Many of you might find it interesting; it covers futurism, technology, science, etc.) Recently, there were two consecutive articles about spiral shapes that I found curious:
{Pasta-shaped radio waves beamed across Venice }

A group of Italian and Swedish researchers may have solved the problem of radio congestion by cleverly twisting radio waves into the shape of fusilli pasta, allowing a potentially infinite number of channels to be broadcast and received.

& { Scientists twist light to send data at more than 2 terabits per second }

A multinational team led by USC with researchers in the U.S., China, Pakistan, and Israel has developed a system of transmitting data using twisted beams of light at ultra-high speeds — up to 2.56 terabits per second.
Broadband cable supports up to about 30 megabits per second. The twisted-light system transmits about 85,000 times more data per second.

Is there something inherent to spiral shapes that allows them to hold more “information”? (I’m using the word info. in a general way, like if we think of the universe as a system of variously configured “bits” of info.) Is the relationship — in terms of information — between these technologies and natural constructs like DNA and galaxies more than an aesthetic correlation? If it’s true that spirals “hold more”, why is this?

P.S.I’ve also asked this question at { Udacity }, if any of you are enrolled in Intro to Physics. I’ll re-post answers here if anyone answers there, and vice versa.

olena:

Art by { dvdp }

THE PHYSICS OF SPIRALS?

Perhaps someone with more experience in math & physics can give some insight about this:

I’ve subscribed to a weekly newsletter from { Kurzweil AI } (Many of you might find it interesting; it covers futurism, technology, science, etc.) Recently, there were two consecutive articles about spiral shapes that I found curious:

{Pasta-shaped radio waves beamed across Venice }

A group of Italian and Swedish researchers may have solved the problem of radio congestion by cleverly twisting radio waves into the shape of fusilli pasta, allowing a potentially infinite number of channels to be broadcast and received.

& { Scientists twist light to send data at more than 2 terabits per second }

A multinational team led by USC with researchers in the U.S., China, Pakistan, and Israel has developed a system of transmitting data using twisted beams of light at ultra-high speeds — up to 2.56 terabits per second.

Broadband cable supports up to about 30 megabits per second. The twisted-light system transmits about 85,000 times more data per second.

Is there something inherent to spiral shapes that allows them to hold more “information”? (I’m using the word info. in a general way, like if we think of the universe as a system of variously configured “bits” of info.) Is the relationship — in terms of information — between these technologies and natural constructs like DNA and galaxies more than an aesthetic correlation? If it’s true that spirals “hold more”, why is this?

P.S.
I’ve also asked this question at { Udacity }, if any of you are enrolled in Intro to Physics. I’ll re-post answers here if anyone answers there, and vice versa.

365rulesforpremeds:

Study Break: The History of the Discovery of DNA

365rulesforpremeds:

Study Break: The History of the Discovery of DNA

blamoscience:

What may be the oldest fragments of the modern human genome found yet have now been revealed — DNA from the 7,000-year-old bones of two cavemen unearthed in Spain, researchers say.
These findings suggest the cavemen there were not the ancestors of the people found in the region today, investigators added.
Scientists have recently sequenced the genomes of our closest extinct relatives, the Neanderthals and the Denisovans. When it came to our lineage, the oldest modern human genomes recovered yet came from Otzi the Iceman, a 5,300-year-old mummy found in the Alps in 1991. Researchers have salvaged DNA from even older human cells, but this comes from the mitochondria that generate energy for our bodies, and not from the nucleus where our chromosomes are housed. (Mitochondrial DNA is passed down only by mothers.)
Read More

blamoscience:

What may be the oldest fragments of the modern human genome found yet have now been revealed — DNA from the 7,000-year-old bones of two cavemen unearthed in Spain, researchers say.

These findings suggest the cavemen there were not the ancestors of the people found in the region today, investigators added.

Scientists have recently sequenced the genomes of our closest extinct relatives, the Neanderthals and the Denisovans. When it came to our lineage, the oldest modern human genomes recovered yet came from Otzi the Iceman, a 5,300-year-old mummy found in the Alps in 1991. Researchers have salvaged DNA from even older human cells, but this comes from the mitochondria that generate energy for our bodies, and not from the nucleus where our chromosomes are housed. (Mitochondrial DNA is passed down only by mothers.)

Read More