THEME BY PISTACHI-O

expose-the-light:

Photos from Dark Energy Camera in Chile

This photo from the new Dark Energy Camera, taken in September 2012, shows the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365, in the Fornax cluster of galaxies, which lies about 60 million light years from Earth.

In physical cosmology and astronomydark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain observations since the 1990s that indicate that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for 73% of the total mass–energy of the universe.

thenewenlightenmentage:

“Could There be Life in the Universe Far Older Than Ours?” —Planetary Building Blocks After Big Bang Suggest: “Yes”
The raw materials for building terrestrial planets were available very soon after the Big Bang, raising the possibility that there could be life in the Universe far older than we. Perhaps they reside around long-lived red dwarf stars, or have moved on from their home system after their star expired. Or, perhaps, we really are the first, which means that if life has happened just once throughout the entire history of the Universe, our existence must be a fluke and our planet very, very special indeed.
Continue reading “”Could There be Life in the Universe Far Older Than Ours?” —Planetary Building Blocks After Big Bang Suggest: “Yes” ” »

thenewenlightenmentage:

“Could There be Life in the Universe Far Older Than Ours?” —Planetary Building Blocks After Big Bang Suggest: “Yes”

The raw materials for building terrestrial planets were available very soon after the Big Bang, raising the possibility that there could be life in the Universe far older than we. Perhaps they reside around long-lived red dwarf stars, or have moved on from their home system after their star expired. Or, perhaps, we really are the first, which means that if life has happened just once throughout the entire history of the Universe, our existence must be a fluke and our planet very, very special indeed.

Continue reading “”Could There be Life in the Universe Far Older Than Ours?” —Planetary Building Blocks After Big Bang Suggest: “Yes” ” »

intothecontinuum:

The 821 knot parametrized as a Lissajous curve.
Mathematica code:
Manipulate[  Graphics[  Table[    Disk[     {Cos[3 (.1*t + n)*2 Pi/100 + .1], Cos[4 (.1*t + n)*2 Pi/100 + .7]},      .03*Cos[7 (.1*t + n)*2 Pi/100] + .05],   {n, 1, 100}],  PlotRange -> 1.1, ImageSize -> 500],{t,1,10,1}]

intothecontinuum:

The 821 knot parametrized as a Lissajous curve.

Mathematica code:

Manipulate[ 
Graphics[
Table[
Disk[
{Cos[3 (.1*t + n)*2 Pi/100 + .1], Cos[4 (.1*t + n)*2 Pi/100 + .7]},
.03*Cos[7 (.1*t + n)*2 Pi/100] + .05],
{n, 1, 100}],
PlotRange -> 1.1, ImageSize -> 500],
{t,1,10,1}]
deconversionmovement:

Feathered Dinosaurs Drive Creationists Crazy
Biblical literalists are on a campaign to “take dinosaurs back.”
The dinosaurs of our childhood aren’t around anymore. The sluggish, swamp-bound pea-brains that haunted museum halls and trundled through picture books have been eviscerated by agile, hot-blooded, and, often, feathery dinosaurs that more accurately reflect what Tyrannosaurus rex and kin were actually like. What’s more, thanks to a heap of lovely fossils, we now know that even the most fearsome of the tyrant dinosaurs were closely related to the avian dinosaurs—the birds—that flit around our backyards today.
Continue Reading

deconversionmovement:

Feathered Dinosaurs Drive Creationists Crazy

Biblical literalists are on a campaign to “take dinosaurs back.”

The dinosaurs of our childhood aren’t around anymore. The sluggish, swamp-bound pea-brains that haunted museum halls and trundled through picture books have been eviscerated by agile, hot-blooded, and, often, feathery dinosaurs that more accurately reflect what Tyrannosaurus rex and kin were actually like. What’s more, thanks to a heap of lovely fossils, we now know that even the most fearsome of the tyrant dinosaurs were closely related to the avian dinosaurs—the birds—that flit around our backyards today.

Continue Reading

theatlantic:

In Focus: Hubble’s Hidden Treasures

Last March, the operators of the Hubble Space Telescope launched a competition, inviting amateur astronomers to dig into hundreds of thousands of images of outer space, helping discover hidden treasures and bring them to light. Yesterday, NASA and the European Space Agency announced the winners in both categories: image processing, where entrants composed their own images based on Hubble data, and image search, where entrants simply uncovered amazing images not previously released.

See more. [Images: NASA/ESA, Josh Lake, Andre van der Hoeven, Luca Limatola, Ralf Schoofs]

cozydark:

Mystery of the ‘Monster’ Stars |
In 2010 scientists discovered four ‘monster’ sized stars, with the heaviest more than 300 times as massive as our Sun. Despite their incredible luminosity, these exotic objects, located in the giant star cluster R136 in the nearby galaxy the Large Magellanic Cloud; have oddly so far been found nowhere else. Now a group of astronomers at the University of Bonn have a new explanation: the ultramassive stars were created from the merger of lighter stars in tight binary systems.
The team present their results in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), at a distance of 160,000 light years, is the third nearest satellite of the Milky Way galaxy we live in and contains around 10 billion stars. The LMC has many star forming regions, with by far the most active being the 1000 light year diameter ‘Tarantula Nebula’ where the four supermassive stars are found. This cloud of gas and dust is a highly fertile breeding ground of stars in the LMC also known as the “30 Doradus” (30 Dor) complex. Near the centre of 30 Dor is R136, by far the brightest stellar nursery not just in the LMC but in the entire ‘Local Group’ of more than 50 galaxies (including our own) and the site of the perplexing ultramassive stars.
Until the discovery of these objects in 2010, observations of the Milky Way and other galaxies suggested that the upper limit for stars formed in the present day universe was about 150 times the mass of the Sun. This value represented a universal limit and appeared to apply wherever stars formed.
“Not only the upper mass limit but the whole mass ingredient of any newborn assembly of stars appears identical irrespective of the stellar birthplace”, says Prof. Dr Pavel Kroupa of the University of Bonn, a co-author on the new paper. “The star birth process seems to be universal.” continue reading

cozydark:

Mystery of the ‘Monster’ Stars |

In 2010 scientists discovered four ‘monster’ sized stars, with the heaviest more than 300 times as massive as our Sun. Despite their incredible luminosity, these exotic objects, located in the giant star cluster R136 in the nearby galaxy the Large Magellanic Cloud; have oddly so far been found nowhere else. Now a group of astronomers at the University of Bonn have a new explanation: the ultramassive stars were created from the merger of lighter stars in tight binary systems.

The team present their results in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), at a distance of 160,000 light years, is the third nearest satellite of the Milky Way galaxy we live in and contains around 10 billion stars. The LMC has many star forming regions, with by far the most active being the 1000 light year diameter ‘Tarantula Nebula’ where the four supermassive stars are found. This cloud of gas and dust is a highly fertile breeding ground of stars in the LMC also known as the “30 Doradus” (30 Dor) complex. Near the centre of 30 Dor is R136, by far the brightest stellar nursery not just in the LMC but in the entire ‘Local Group’ of more than 50 galaxies (including our own) and the site of the perplexing ultramassive stars.

Until the discovery of these objects in 2010, observations of the Milky Way and other galaxies suggested that the upper limit for stars formed in the present day universe was about 150 times the mass of the Sun. This value represented a universal limit and appeared to apply wherever stars formed.

“Not only the upper mass limit but the whole mass ingredient of any newborn assembly of stars appears identical irrespective of the stellar birthplace”, says Prof. Dr Pavel Kroupa of the University of Bonn, a co-author on the new paper. “The star birth process seems to be universal.” continue reading

ikenbot:

H II Regions in the Cosmos

Areas in space which are luminous with the emission spectrum of ionized hydrogen are called H II regions.

They are associated with the presence of massive O-type and B-type stars. Such stars, having surface temperatures in the range 15,000 - 30,000K, have characteristic blackbody radiation curves which peak in the ultraviolet. These stars will often be surrounded by vast clouds of hydrogen gas, and the uv can ionize the hydrogen atoms.

These hydrogen atoms tend to attract electrons and reassemble, with the captured electrons cascading down through the quantum states of the hydrogen atom, emitting characteristic photons of light upon each downward jump. A characteristic visible color from such emission is red light at 656 nm associated with the n=3 to n=2 transition which is called H-alpha.

Depending upon the recession velocity of the nebula, the light will be red-shifted, but many regions like the M16 region show a red glow characteristic of the hydrogen emissions. H II regions are associated with young star clusters, and are useful as a part of astronomical distance measurement.

ikenbot:

H II Regions in the Cosmos

Areas in space which are luminous with the emission spectrum of ionized hydrogen are called H II regions.

They are associated with the presence of massive O-type and B-type stars. Such stars, having surface temperatures in the range 15,000 - 30,000K, have characteristic blackbody radiation curves which peak in the ultraviolet. These stars will often be surrounded by vast clouds of hydrogen gas, and the uv can ionize the hydrogen atoms.

These hydrogen atoms tend to attract electrons and reassemble, with the captured electrons cascading down through the quantum states of the hydrogen atom, emitting characteristic photons of light upon each downward jump. A characteristic visible color from such emission is red light at 656 nm associated with the n=3 to n=2 transition which is called H-alpha.

Depending upon the recession velocity of the nebula, the light will be red-shifted, but many regions like the M16 region show a red glow characteristic of the hydrogen emissions. H II regions are associated with young star clusters, and are useful as a part of astronomical distance measurement.

ikenbot:

NGC 6362: Stars Ancient and Modern?

This colourful view of the globular star cluster NGC 6362 was captured by the Wide Field Imager attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO’s La Silla Observatory in Chile.

This new picture, along with a new image of the central region from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, provide the best view of this little-known cluster ever obtained. Globular clusters are mainly composed of tens of thousands of very ancient stars, but they also contain some stars that look suspiciously young.

Globular star clusters are among the oldest objects in the Universe, and NGC 6362 cannot hide its age in this picture. The many yellowish stars in the cluster have already run through much of their lives and become red giant stars. But globular clusters are not static relics from the past — some curious stellar activities are still going on in these dense star cities.

ikenbot:

NGC 6362: Stars Ancient and Modern?

This colourful view of the globular star cluster NGC 6362 was captured by the Wide Field Imager attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO’s La Silla Observatory in Chile.

This new picture, along with a new image of the central region from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, provide the best view of this little-known cluster ever obtained. Globular clusters are mainly composed of tens of thousands of very ancient stars, but they also contain some stars that look suspiciously young.

Globular star clusters are among the oldest objects in the Universe, and NGC 6362 cannot hide its age in this picture. The many yellowish stars in the cluster have already run through much of their lives and become red giant stars. But globular clusters are not static relics from the past — some curious stellar activities are still going on in these dense star cities.

leviathan8:

Comet Hartley passes the Double Star Cluster

Most star clusters are singularly impressive. Open clusters NGC 869 and NGC 884, however, are doubly impressive. Also known as “h and chi Persei”, this unusual double cluster, shown above, is bright enough to be seen from a dark location without even binoculars. Although their discovery surely predates written history, the Greek astronomer Hipparchus notably cataloged the double cluster. The clusters are over 7,000 light years distant toward the constellation of Perseus, but are separated by only hundreds of light years. Captured here, the bright comet 103P/Hartley, informally called Comet Hartley 2, passed well in front but only a few degrees away from the famous double cluster.

Image credit: Ivan Eder

leviathan8:

Comet Hartley passes the Double Star Cluster

Most star clusters are singularly impressive. Open clusters NGC 869 and NGC 884, however, are doubly impressive. Also known as “h and chi Persei”, this unusual double cluster, shown above, is bright enough to be seen from a dark location without even binoculars. Although their discovery surely predates written history, the Greek astronomer Hipparchus notably cataloged the double cluster. The clusters are over 7,000 light years distant toward the constellation of Perseus, but are separated by only hundreds of light years. Captured here, the bright comet 103P/Hartley, informally called Comet Hartley 2, passed well in front but only a few degrees away from the famous double cluster.

Image credit: Ivan Eder

spaceplasma:

The Southern Cliff in the Lagoon 
Undulating bright ridges and dusty clouds cross this close-up of the nearby star forming region M8, also known as the Lagoon Nebula. A sharp, false-color composite of narrow band visible and broad band near-infrared data from the 8-meter Gemini South Telescope, the entire view spans about 20 light-years through a region of the nebula sometimes called the Southern Cliff. The highly detailed image explores the association of many newborn stars imbedded in the tips of the bright-rimmed clouds and Herbig-Haro objects. Abundant in star-forming regions, Herbig-Haro objects are produced as powerful jets emitted by young stars in the process of formation heat the surrounding clouds of gas and dust. The cosmic Lagoon is found some 5,000 light-years away toward constellation Sagittarius and the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. (Editor’s Note: For location and scale, check out this image superimposing the close-up region shown in today’s APOD on the larger Lagoon Nebula. Scale image is courtesy R. Barbá.)

Credit:  Julia I. Arias and Rodolfo H. Barbá (Dept. Fisica, Univ. de La Serena), ICATE-CONICET, Gemini Observatory/AURA

spaceplasma:

The Southern Cliff in the Lagoon

Undulating bright ridges and dusty clouds cross this close-up of the nearby star forming region M8, also known as the Lagoon Nebula. A sharp, false-color composite of narrow band visible and broad band near-infrared data from the 8-meter Gemini South Telescope, the entire view spans about 20 light-years through a region of the nebula sometimes called the Southern Cliff. The highly detailed image explores the association of many newborn stars imbedded in the tips of the bright-rimmed clouds and Herbig-Haro objects. Abundant in star-forming regions, Herbig-Haro objects are produced as powerful jets emitted by young stars in the process of formation heat the surrounding clouds of gas and dust. The cosmic Lagoon is found some 5,000 light-years away toward constellation Sagittarius and the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. (Editor’s Note: For location and scale, check out this image superimposing the close-up region shown in today’s APOD on the larger Lagoon Nebula. Scale image is courtesy R. Barbá.)

Credit: Julia I. Arias and Rodolfo H. Barbá (Dept. Fisica, Univ. de La Serena), ICATE-CONICET, Gemini Observatory/AURA

spaceplasma:

A small section of the Carina Nebula
Looking like an elegant abstract art piece painted by talented hands, this picture is actually a NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image of a small section of the Carina Nebula. Part of this huge nebula was documented in the well-known Mystic Mountain picture (heic1007a) and this picture takes an even closer look at another piece of this bizarre astronomical landscape (heic0707a).
The Carina Nebula itself is a star-forming region about 7500 light-years from Earth in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel: part of Jason’s ship the Argo). Infant stars blaze with a ferocity so severe that the radiation emitted carves away at the surrounding gas, sculpting it into strange structures. The dust clumps towards the upper right of the image, looking like ink dropped into milk, were formed in this way. It has been suggested that they are cocoons for newly forming stars.
The Carina Nebula is mostly made from hydrogen, but there are other elements present, such as oxygen and sulphur. This provides evidence that the nebula is at least partly formed from the remnants of earlier generations of stars where most elements heavier than helium were synthesised.
The brightest stars in the image are not actually part of the Carina Nebula. They are much closer to us, essentially being the foreground to the Carina Nebula’s background.
This picture was created from images taken with Hubble’s Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Images through a blue filter (F450W) were coloured blue and images through a yellow/orange filter (F606W) were coloured red. The field of view is 2.4 by 1.3 arcminutes.
Credit:
ESA/Hubble & NASA

spaceplasma:

A small section of the Carina Nebula

Looking like an elegant abstract art piece painted by talented hands, this picture is actually a NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image of a small section of the Carina Nebula. Part of this huge nebula was documented in the well-known Mystic Mountain picture (heic1007a) and this picture takes an even closer look at another piece of this bizarre astronomical landscape (heic0707a).

The Carina Nebula itself is a star-forming region about 7500 light-years from Earth in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel: part of Jason’s ship the Argo). Infant stars blaze with a ferocity so severe that the radiation emitted carves away at the surrounding gas, sculpting it into strange structures. The dust clumps towards the upper right of the image, looking like ink dropped into milk, were formed in this way. It has been suggested that they are cocoons for newly forming stars.

The Carina Nebula is mostly made from hydrogen, but there are other elements present, such as oxygen and sulphur. This provides evidence that the nebula is at least partly formed from the remnants of earlier generations of stars where most elements heavier than helium were synthesised.

The brightest stars in the image are not actually part of the Carina Nebula. They are much closer to us, essentially being the foreground to the Carina Nebula’s background.

This picture was created from images taken with Hubble’s Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Images through a blue filter (F450W) were coloured blue and images through a yellow/orange filter (F606W) were coloured red. The field of view is 2.4 by 1.3 arcminutes.

Credit:

ESA/Hubble & NASA

astrodidact:

Spiralling towards destruction, the gas cloud heading to the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way at five million miles an hour

By EDDIE WRENN UPDATED: 10:54 EST, 27 June 2012/ Daily Mail

Next year will see one of the biggest collisions ever observed by man. A giant gas cloud will hit the massive black hole - known as Sagittarius A - which lies at the centre of our galaxy in 2013. Actually, the cloud will miss by quite a distance - 24,000,000,000 miles to be semi-exact -and while this is quite a distance (indeed it takes light 36 hours to travel that far), the tidal forces of the black hole will rip the gas cloud apart. One observer will be Stefan Gillessen, an astrophysicist at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Munich, Germany, who has been observing the black hole for the last 20 years. He said: ‘So far there were only two stars that came that close to Sagittarius A. They passed unharmed, but this time will be different: the gas cloud will be completely ripped apart by the tidal forces of the black hole.’ As the cloud gets closer, it’s speed gets quicker - it has doubled its speed in just seven years.

Astronomers using ESO’s Very Large Telescope will also watch the black hole. Colleague Reinhard Genzel at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physicsy, has discovered a unique new object fast approaching the black hole. Gillessen afd’The idea of an astronaut close to a black hole being stretched out to resemble spaghetti is familiar from science fiction. But we can now see this happening for real to the newly discovered cloud. It is not going to survive the experience,’ explains Stefan Gillessen, the lead author of the paper. The gas cloud will pass at a distance of only about 40 billion kilometers from the event horizon of the black hole, a distance of about 36 light-hours - very close, when it’s an encounter with an object as powerful and destructive as a supermassive black hole. As it approaches its doom, the cloud is glowing under the strong ultraviolet radiation from the hot stars around it in the crowded heart of the Milky Way.

This is the first time ever that the approach of such a doomed cloud to a supermassive black hole has been observed and it is expected to break up completely during 2013

As the cloud gets ever closer to the hungry beast, increasing external pressure will compress the cloud. At the same time the huge gravitational pull from the black hole, which has a mass four million times that of the Sun, will continue to accelerate the inward motion and stretch the cloud out along its orbit. The cloud’s edges are already starting to shred and disrupt and it is expected to break up completely over the next few years. The astronomers can already see clear signs of increasing disruption of the cloud over the period between 2008 and 2011. The material is also expected to get much hotter as it nears the black hole in 2013 and it will probably start to give off X-rays. There is currently little material close to the black hole so the newly-arrived meal will be the dominant fuel for the black hole over the next few years. One explanation for the formation of the cloud is that its material may have come from nearby young massive stars that are rapidly losing mass due to strong stellar winds. Such stars literally blow their gas away. Colliding stellar winds from a known double star in orbit around the central black hole may have led to the formation of the cloud. ‘The next two years will be very interesting and should provide us with extremely valuable information on the behavior of matter around such remarkable massive objects,’ says Reinhard Genzel.

leviathan8:

The Dumbell Nebula

The first hint of what will become of our Sun was discovered inadvertently in 1764. At that time, Charles Messier was compiling a list of diffuse objects not to be confused with comets. The 27th object on Messier’s list, now known as M27 or the Dumbbell Nebula, is a planetary nebula, the type of nebula our Sun will produce when nuclear fusion stops in its core. M27 is one of the brightest planetary nebulae on the sky, and can be seen toward the constellation of the Fox (Vulpecula) with binoculars. It takes light about 1000 years to reach us from M27. Understanding the physics and significance of M27 was well beyond 18th century science. Even today, many things remain mysterious about bipolar planetary nebula like M27, including the physical mechanism that expels a low-mass star’s gaseous outer-envelope, leaving an X-ray hot white dwarf.

Image credit: Warrumbungle Observatory

leviathan8:

The Dumbell Nebula
The first hint of what will become of our Sun was discovered inadvertently in 1764. At that time, Charles Messier was compiling a list of diffuse objects not to be confused with comets. The 27th object on Messier’s list, now known as M27 or the Dumbbell Nebula, is a planetary nebula, the type of nebula our Sun will produce when nuclear fusion stops in its core. M27 is one of the brightest planetary nebulae on the sky, and can be seen toward the constellation of the Fox (Vulpecula) with binoculars. It takes light about 1000 years to reach us from M27. Understanding the physics and significance of M27 was well beyond 18th century science. Even today, many things remain mysterious about bipolar planetary nebula like M27, including the physical mechanism that expels a low-mass star’s gaseous outer-envelope, leaving an X-ray hot white dwarf.
Image credit: Warrumbungle Observatory

thenewenlightenmentage:

When Galaxies Eat Galaxies: Gravity Lenses Suggest Big Collisions Make Galaxies Denser
ScienceDaily (Oct. 12, 2012) — Using gravitational “lenses” in space, University of Utah astronomers discovered that the centers of the biggest galaxies are growing denser — evidence of repeated collisions and mergers by massive galaxies with 100 billion stars.
Continue Reading

thenewenlightenmentage:

When Galaxies Eat Galaxies: Gravity Lenses Suggest Big Collisions Make Galaxies Denser

ScienceDaily (Oct. 12, 2012) — Using gravitational “lenses” in space, University of Utah astronomers discovered that the centers of the biggest galaxies are growing denser — evidence of repeated collisions and mergers by massive galaxies with 100 billion stars.

Continue Reading


  Dark Matters: What Is our Universe Made Of?
  
  In ancient times, listing the ingredients of the universe was simple: earth, air, fire and water. Today, scientists know that naming all of that, plus everything else familiar in everyday life, leaves out 95 percent of the cosmos’s contents.
  
  From the atoms that make up an astronomer, to the glass and steel of a telescope, to the hot plasma of the stars above — all ordinary stuff accounts for less than 5 percent of the mass and energy in the universe. “All the visible world that we see around us is just the tip of the iceberg,” says Joshua Frieman, an astrophysicist at the University of Chicago and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill.
  
  The rest is, quite literally, dark. Nearly one-quarter of the universe’s composition is as-yet-unidentified material called dark matter. The remaining 70 percent or so is a mysterious entity — known as dark energy — that pervades all of space, pushing it apart at an ever-faster rate.
  
  “Dark” is an appropriate adjective, as scientists have little insight into where dark matter and dark energy come from. But figuring out dark matter would illuminate what holds galaxies together. Figuring out dark energy might help reveal the universe’s ultimate fate.
  
  It’s little wonder that scientists regard the identities of dark matter and dark energy as among today’s biggest astronomical puzzles.
  
  Read More

Dark Matters: What Is our Universe Made Of?

In ancient times, listing the ingredients of the universe was simple: earth, air, fire and water. Today, scientists know that naming all of that, plus everything else familiar in everyday life, leaves out 95 percent of the cosmos’s contents.

From the atoms that make up an astronomer, to the glass and steel of a telescope, to the hot plasma of the stars above — all ordinary stuff accounts for less than 5 percent of the mass and energy in the universe. “All the visible world that we see around us is just the tip of the iceberg,” says Joshua Frieman, an astrophysicist at the University of Chicago and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill.

The rest is, quite literally, dark. Nearly one-quarter of the universe’s composition is as-yet-unidentified material called dark matter. The remaining 70 percent or so is a mysterious entity — known as dark energy — that pervades all of space, pushing it apart at an ever-faster rate.

“Dark” is an appropriate adjective, as scientists have little insight into where dark matter and dark energy come from. But figuring out dark matter would illuminate what holds galaxies together. Figuring out dark energy might help reveal the universe’s ultimate fate.

It’s little wonder that scientists regard the identities of dark matter and dark energy as among today’s biggest astronomical puzzles.

Read More